DETERMINATION OF FACTORS OF FORMATION OF QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF SURFACE WATER OBJECTS BY THE METHOD OF MAIN COMPONENTS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF RIVERS OF THE DNIEPER BASIN)
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine
European Institute of Further Education, Podhajska, Slovakia
Keywords: surface water body, method of main components, factors of formation of qualitative composition of surface waters, Dnieper basin
The article analyzes the water quality of surface water bodies (on the example of rivers of the Dnieper basin) by the method of main components, identifies and interprets the main factors that form long-term variability of water quality of surface water bodies and make different contributions to the total variance. The research was carried out according to the samples of control water intake of the Dnieper River within the Basin Water Resources Management at 12 posts, for the period from 2011 to 2020. The leading factors were identified: plant and animal organisms (12…39 %), leaching of Fe- and Cu-containing minerals (10…29 %). The article shows that in the formation of the chemical composition of the water of the rivers of the studied region is determined by the factor of ion from the rocks on which the formation of the catchment. A factor characterizing the local conditions of river runoff formation has been identified - the process of groundwater discharge, which is manifested in changes in the concentrations of silicon and nitrates. In addition, a negative dependence of changes in the content of silicon ions and nitrates on temperature. The originality of the study is based on an integrated approach, which includes research based on available data in the State Agency of Water Resources of Ukraine, which takes into account the principles of biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of water resources, river management and basins, monitoring and evaluation of their status. In the future, the proposed approach may be the subject of research in the direction of establishing factors that characterize the local conditions of formation of river runoff, including taking into account the man-made load on it.
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