Radomska Marharyta

National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine


Husieva Alina

National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine


DOI: 10.52363/2522-1892.2021.2.1


Keywords: photocatalysis, pollution of water, phenol, wastewater, catalyst, titanium oxide



The analysis of the environmental and human health threats imposed by phenols was conducted to show the need for further improvement of methods of their destruction. Being toxic in their initial composition and precursor to toxic metabolites in human body, phenols should be controlled in natural water and waste waters. They are listed as priority pollutants in most national regulation around the world and are the initial compounds for the formation of persistent organic pollutants in the environment, polluted with other active radicals. A variety of physical and chemical methods were offered for the destructive or non-destructive removal of phenols and their derivatives from water. The comparative study of possible methods, described in research papers, was conducted in terms of their efficiency and complexity to define benefits and drawbacks. The analysis showed the need for development of low energy consuming method, which needs minimal equipment and can be run under industrial condition for phenol contaminated wastewaters. Among the possible methods which meet the mentioned criteria photocatalytic destruction of phenols was showed to be perspective. A series of experiments was conducted using a range of water solution of phenol and different dosage of catalysts. The catalysts used in experiments were made of 6 modification of titanium oxide and bismuth ferrite. The initial and residual concentration of phenol was controlled by the means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The duration of the exposure and the type of light were other independent variables. The results of the whole sequence of experiments demonstrated higher efficiency of rutile under visible light and one hour of exposure. The tested photocatalytic system is simple and therefore technically and economically feasible.



1. Fiedler H., Kallenborn R., de Boer J., Sydnes L. K. (2019). The Stockholm Convention: A Tool for the Global Regulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants. Chemistry International, 41(2),  4-11. DOI: 10.1515/ci-2019-0202.

2. Mainali K. (2020). Phenolic Compounds Contaminants in Water: A Glance. Current Trends in Civil & Structural Engineering, 4(4), 1-3. DOI: 10.33552/CTCSE.2020.04.000593.

3. Davı̀ M. L., Gnudi F. (1999). Phenolic compounds in surface water. Water Research, 33(14), 3213-3219. DOI:

4. Bruce R. M., Santodonato J., Neal M. W. (1987). Summary review of the health effects associated with phenol. Toxicollogy and Industrial Health, 3(4), 535-568. DOI: 10.1177/074823378700300407.

5. Pradeep N. V., Anupama S., Navya K. (2015). Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review. Applied Water Science, 5,
105–112. DOI: 10.1007/s13201-014-0176-8.

6. MahugoSantana C., SosaFerrera Z., TorresPadrón M. E., SantanaRodríguez J. J. (2010). Analytical methodologies for the determination of nitroimidazole residues in biological and environmental liquid samples: a review. Analytica Chimica Acta, 665, 113–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.03.022.

7. Schweigert N., Zehnder A. J., Eggen R. I. (2001). Chemical properties of catechols and their molecular modes of toxic action in cells, from microorganisms to mammals. Environmental Microbiology, 3, 81–90. DOI: 10.1046/j.1462-2920.2001.00176.x.

8. Vom Saal F. S., Hughes C. (2005). An extensive new literature concerning lowdose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 133, 926–933. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7713.

9. Anku W. W., Mamo M. A., Govender P. P. (2017). Phenolic Compounds in Water: Sources, Reactivity, Toxicity and Treatment Methods. Phenolic Compounds Natural Sources, Importance and Applications / Ed. M. Soto-Hernandez, M. Palma-Tenango, M. del Rosario Garcia-Mateos, IntechOpen, 419–443. DOI: 10.5772/66927.

10. Abd Gami A., Shukor M. Y., Khalil K. A., Dahalan F. A., Khalid A., Ahmad S. A. (2014). Phenol and its toxicity. Journal of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, 2(1), 11–23.

11. Villegas L. G. C., Mashhadi N., Chen M., Mukherjee D., Taylor K. E., Biswas N. (2016). A Short Review of Techniques for Phenol Removal from Wastewater. Current Pollution Reports, 2, 157–167. DOI: 10.1007/s40726-016-0035-3.

12. Grabowski L. R., van Veldhuizen E. M., Rutgers W. R. (2005). Removal of phenol from water: a comparison of energization methods. Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, 8(2), 142–149. DOI: 10.1515/jaots-2005-0204.

13. Mohammadi S., Kargari A., Sanaeepur H., Abbassian K., Najafi A., Mofarrah E. (2015). Phenol removal from industrial wastewaters: a short review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 53(8), 2215-2234. DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2014.883327.

14. Kulkarni S. J., Kaware J. P. (2013). Review on research for removal of phenol from wastewater. International journal of scientific and research publications, 3(4), 1-5.

15. Mirian Z.A., NezamzadehEjhieh A. (2016). Removal of phenol content of an industrial wastewater via a heterogeneous photodegradation process using supported FeO onto nanoparticles of Iranian clinoptilolite. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57, 16483–16494. DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2015.1087881.

16. AlKandari H., Abdullah A., Mohamed A., AlKandari S. (2016). Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of a phenolic compounds’ mixture using a highly efficient TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite. Journal of Materials Science, 114, 1–15. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-016-0074-6.

17. Abdollahi Y., Abdullah A. H., Zainal Z., Yusof N. A. (2011). Photocatalytic degradation of pCresol by zinc oxide under UV irradiation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13, 302–315. DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010302.

18. Asmaly H. A., Abussaud B., Saleh T. A., Gupta V. K., Atieh M. A. (2015). Ferric oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers: From synthesis to enhanced removal of phenol. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 19, 511–520. DOI:  10.1016/j.snb.2015.01.100.

19. Feng Y.B., Hong L., Liu A.L., Chen W.D., Li G.W., Chen W., Xia X.H. (2015). Highefficiency catalytic degradation of phenol based on the peroxidaselike activity of cupric oxide nanoparticles. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12, 653–660. DOI: 10.1007/s13762-013-0442-6.

20. Shahrezaei F., Akhbari A., Rostami A. A. (2011). Photodegradation and removal of phenol and phenolic derivatives from petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoparticles of TiO2. International journal of energy and environment, 3(2), 267–274.

21. Suzuki H., Araki S., Yamamoto H. (2015). Evaluation of advanced oxidation processes (AOP) using O3, UV, and TiO2 for the degradation of phenol in water. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 7, 54–60. – DOI: 10.1016/j.jwpe. 2015.04.011.

22. Kartal, Ö. E., Erol M., Oǧuz H. (2001). Photocatalytic Destruction of Phenol by TiO2 Powders. Chemical Engineering and Technology, 24, 645–649. DOI : 10.1002/1521-4125(200106)24:6<645::AID-CEAT645>3.0.CO;2-L.

23. Norouzi M., Fazeli A., Tavakoli O. (2020). Phenol contaminated water treatment by photocatalytic degradation on electrospun Ag/TiO2 nanofibers: Optimization by the response surface method. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 37, 10–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2020.101489.