IMPROVED CRITERION IN METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF THE SAFETY LEVEL OF THE PROCESS OF LAND RECULTIVATION OF PLACES OF AMMUNITION DISPOSAL AND DESTRUCTION
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
National Aerospace University “Kharkiv Aviation Institute”, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
Keywords: safety level, assessment criterion, assessment method, land recultivation, ammunition disposal and destruction, danger of explosion
The relevance of the research and the need to develop methods that allow assessing the level of safety of the disposal and destruction of ammunition sites are shown not only at the present time, but also in the future when land reclamation measures are applied. An improved criterion for assessing the safety level of the reclamation process of the lands of the disposal and destruction of ammunition sites was developed based on the use of a regulatory approach, and significant indicators were determined, namely: the probability of an explosion, the amount of excessive pressure in the air shock wave, and the level of degradation of the lands of the disposal and destruction of ammunition sites.
An improved method of assessing the safety level of the process of land reclamation of the disposal and destruction of munitions by using an improved criterion for assessing the safety level of the process has been developed. The proposed method is suitable not only for long-term evaluation, but also for operational safety management of similar objects. The main advantage of the proposed method in comparison with those used today is to take into account the entire complex of active factors of explosion risk and environmental danger, while minimizing the number of significant environmental quality indicators. Thanks to this, it becomes possible to reduce the amount of calculations required for accurate assessment by a set of regulatory criteria, and also simplifies the assessment procedure without loss of accuracy.
1. Spain, J. C. (1995). Biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds. Annual Review of Microbiology, 49, 523–555.
2. Ahluwalia, S. S., & Goyal, D. (2007). Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 98, 2243–2257.
3. Kim, K. H., Ebinghaus, R., Schroeder, W. H., Blanchard, P., Kock, H. H., Steffen, A., Froude, F. A., Kim, M. Y., Hong, S., & Kim, J. H. (2005). Atmospheric mercury concentrations from several observatory sites in the northern hemisphere. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 50(1), 1–24.
4. Kumar, P., Deep, A., Kim, K. H., & Brown, R. J. C. (2015). Coordination polymers: opportunities and challenges for monitoring volatile organic compounds. Progress in Polymer Science, 45, 102–118.
5. Nyarko, B. J. B., Dampare, S. B., Serfor-Armah, Y., Osae, S., Adotey, D., & Adomako, D. (2008). Biomonitoring in the forest zone of Ghana: the primary results obtained using neutron activation analysis and lichens. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 32, 467–476.
6. Ekmekyapar, F., Sabudak, T., & Seren, G. (2012). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.). plant around The Corlu-Cerkezko highway in Thrace Region. Global NEST Journal, 14(4), 496–504.
7. Jamali, M. K., Kazi, T. G., Arain, M. B., Afridi, H. I., Jalbani, N., Kandhro, G. A., Shah, A. Q., & Baig, J. A. (2009). Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2–3), 1386–1391.
8. Srivastav, A. L., Kaur, T., Rani, L., & Kumar, A. (2019). Scientific research production of India and China in environmental chemistry: a bibliometric assessment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16, 4989–4996.
9. Yoon, J., Cao, X., Zhou, Q., & Ma, L. Q. (2006). Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Science of the Total Environment, 368, 456–464.
10. Leong, Y. K., & Chang, J.-S. (2020). Bioremediation of heavy metals using microalgae: recent advances and mechanisms. Bioresource Technology, 30, 122886.
11. Zou, Y., Wang, X., Khan, A., Wang, P., Liu, Y., Alsaedi, A., Hayat, T., & Wang, X. (2016). Environmental remediation and application of nanoscale zero-valent iron and its composites for the removal of heavy metal ions: a review. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 7290–7304.
12. Zhang, C., Li, X., Chen, Z., Wen, T., Huang, S., Hayat, T., Alsaedi, A., & Wang, X. (2018). Synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbonaceous materials and its highly efficient capture of uranium from solutions. Science China Chemistry, 61, 281–293.
13. Wu, Q., Leung, J. Y. S., Du, Y., Kong, D., Shi, Y., Wang, Y., & Xiao, T. (2019). Trace metals in e-waste lead to serious health risk through consumption of rice growing near an abandoned e-waste recycling site: comparisons with PBDEs and AHFRs. Environmental Pollution, 247, 46–54.
14. Wu, Y., Pang, L. Y., Wang, X., Yu, S., Fu, D., Chen, J., & Wang, X. (2019). Environmental remediation of heavy metal ions by novelnanomaterials: a review. Environmental Pollution, 246, 608–620.
15. Chu, Z., Fan, X., Wang, W., & Huang, W. C. (2019). Quantitative evaluation of heavy metals’ pollution hazards and estimation of heavy metals’ environmental costs in leachate during food waste composting. Waste Management, 84, 119–128.
16. Gumpu, M. B., Sethuraman, S., Krishnan, U. M., & Rayappan, J. B. B. (2015). A review on detection of heavy metal ions in water – an electrochemical approach. Sensors & Actuators, B: Chemical, 213, 515–533.
17. Gong, T., Liu, J., Liu, X., Liu, J., Xiang, J., & Wu, Y. (2016). A sensitive and selective platform based on CdTe QDs in the presence of Lcysteine for detection of silver, mercury and copper ions in water and various drinks. Food Chemistry, 213, 306–312.
18. Guilarte, T. R. (2011). Manganese and Parkinson’s disease: a critical review and new findings. Cien Saude Colet, 16, 4549–4566.
19. Kampa, M., & Castanas, E. (2008). Human health effects of air pollution. Environmental Pollution, 151, 362–367.
20. Kumar, P., Kim, K. H., Bansal, V., Lazarides, T., & Kumar, N. (2017). Progress in the sensing techniques for heavy metal ions using nanomaterials. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 54, 30–34.
21. Lim, H. S., Lee, J. S., Chon, H. T., Sager, M. (2008). Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in the vicinity of the abandoned Songcheon Au–Ag mine in Korea. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 96, 223–230.
22. Mehta, J., Bhardwaj, S. K., Bhardwaj, N., Paul, A. K, Kumar, P., Kim, K. H., & Deep, A. (2016). A progress in the biosensing techniques for trace-level heavy metals. Biotechnology Advances, 34(1), 47–60.
23. Oves, M., Saghir, K. M., Huda, Q. A., Nadeen, F. M., & Almeelbi, T. (2016). Heavy metals: biological importance and detoxification strategies. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, 7, 2.
24. Sevim, C., Dogan, E., & Comakli, S. (2020). Cardiovascular disease and toxic metals. Current Opinion in Toxicology, 19, 88–92.
25. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, & Trautwein, A. (1997). Bioinorganic chemistry: transition metals in biology and their coordination chemistry. Weinheim; New York; Chichester; Brisbane; Singapore; Toronto: Wiley-VCH.
26. Turdean, G. L. (2011). Design and development of biosensors for the detection of heavy metal toxicity. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2011, 1–15.
27. Wallace, D. R, & Djordjevic, A. B. (2020). Heavy metal and pesticide exposure: a mixture of potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. Current Opinion in Toxicology, 19, 72–79.
28. Gorecki, S., Nesslany, F., Hube, D., Mullot, J., Vasseur, P., Marchioni, E., Camel, V., Noël, L., Le, B. B., Guérin, T., Feidt, C., Archer, X., Mahe, A., & Rivière, G. (2017). Human health risks related to the consumption of foodstuffs of plant and animal origin produced on a site polluted by chemical munitions of the First World War. Science of the Total Environment, 599–600, 314–323.
29. Lima, D., Bezerra, M., Neves, E., & Moreira, F. (2011). Impact of ammunition and military explosives on human health and the environment. Reviews on Environmental Health, 26(2), 101‑110.
30. Olson, K., & Tharp, M. (2020). How did the Passaic River, a Superfund site near Newark, New Jersey, become an Agent Orange dioxin TCDD hotspot? Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 75(2), 33A–37A.
31. Pichtel, J. (2012). Distribution and Fate of Military Explosives and Propellants in Soil: A Review. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2012, 617236.
32. Ryu, H., Han, J., Jung, J. W., Bae, B., & Nam, K. (2007). Human health risk assessment of explosives and heavy metals at a military gunnery range. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 29(4), 259–269.
33. Vasarevicius, S., & Greičiūte, K. (2004). Investigation of soil pollution with heavy metals in Lithuanian military grounds. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 12(4), 132‑137.
34. Lewis, T. A., Newcombe, D. A., & Crawford, R. L. (2004). Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives. Journal of Environmental Management, 70(4), 291–307.
35. Dinake, P., Kelebemang, R., & Sehube, N. (2019). A comprehensive approach to speciation of lead and its contamination of firing range soils: a review. Soil & Sediment Contamination, 28, 1–29.
36. Etim, E.U. (2018). Batch leaching of Pb contaminated shooting range soil using citric acid modified washing solution and electrochemical reduction. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16, 3013–3020.
37. Moon, D. H., Park, J. W., Chang, Y. Y., Ok, Y. S., Lee, S. S., Ahmad, M., Koutsospyros, A., Park, J.H., & Baek, K. (2013). Immobilization of lead in contaminated firing range soil using biochar. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, 8464–8471.
38. Cao, X., Ma, L. Q., Chen, M., Hardison, D, W., & Harris, W. G. (2003). Lead transformation and distribution in the soils of shooting ranges in Florida, USA. Science of the Total Environment, 307, 179–189.
39. Lin, Z., Comet, B., Qvarfort, U., & Herbert, R. (1995). The chemical and mineralogical behaviour of Pb in shooting range soils from central Sweden. Environmental Pollution, 89, 303–309.
40. Pro zatverdzhennja Gigijenichnyh reglamentiv dopustymogo vmistu himichnyh rechovyn u g'runti [On approval of Hygienic regulations for the permissible content of chemicals in the soil], 1595 Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (2020). https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0722-20#Text. [in Ukrainian].
41. Lago-Vila, M., Rodríguez-Seijo, A., Vega, F. A., & Arenas-Lago, D. (2019). Phytotoxicity assays with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles lead the way to recover firing range soils. Science of the Total Environment, 690, 1151–1161.
42. Martin, W. A., Nestler, C. C., Wynter, M., & Larson, S. L. (2014). Bullet on bullet fragmentation profile in soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 369–372.
43. Didovets, Yu., Koloskov, V., Koloskova, H., & Jinadu, A. (2021). Model' systemy upravlinnja bezpekoju rekul'tyvacii' zemel' misc' zneshkodzhennja ta znyshhennja bojeprypasiv [Model of safety management system of land recultivation of places of ammunition disposal and destruction]. Technogenic and ecological safety, 10(2/2021), 64–69. [in Ukrainian].
44. 2021 BATA Explosions – Equatorial Guinea. Multi-Cluster/Sector Initial Rapid Assessment (MIRA). (2021). OCHA, 14 p.
45. Broomandi, P., Guney, M., Kim, J. R., & Karaca, F. (2020). Soil Contamination in Areas Impacted by Military Activities: A Critical Review. Sustainability, 12, 9002.
46. Bulloch, G., Green, K., Sainsbury, M. G., Brockwell, J. S., Steeds, J. E., & Slade, N. J. (2001). Land Contamination: Technical Guidance on Special Sites: Explosives Manufacturing & Processing Sites. R&D Technical Report P5-042/TR/03. Environment Agency, 68 p.
47. Environmental Impact of Munition and Propellant Disposal. Final Report of Task Group AVT-115. (2010). Research and Technology Organisation / North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, 86 p.
48. Guilbaud, M. (2020). The Environmental Impact of an Explosion. White Paper. Geode, 43 p.
49. Hathaway, J. E., Rishel, J. P., Walsh, M. E., Walsh, M. R., & Taylor, S. (2015). Explosive particle soil surface dispersion model for detonated military munitions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(415), 4652.
50. Zwijnenburg, W., & te Pas, K. (2015). Amidst the debris... A desktop study on the environmental and public health impact of Syria’s conflict. Colophon, 84 p.
51. Project Management Institute, Inc. (2013). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). – Fifth Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute, Inc
52. Nykyforov, L. L. (2013). Bezpeka zhyttjedijal'nosti: Navchal'nyj posibnyk [Safety of habitability: Tutorial]. Dashkov i K. [in Ukrainian].
53. Andronov, V., & Koloskov, V. (2019). Factors of environmental condition of territories adjoined to municipal solid wastes landfills. XVII Mizhnarodna naukovo-tehnichna konferencija «Problemy ekologichnoi' bezpeky». Materialy konferencii' [XVII International Scientific and Technical Conference "Problems of Environmental Safety". Conference proceedings], Kremenchuk, KrNU, 204–207.
54. Pospelov, B. B., & Andronov, V. A. (2018). Modeli kachestva obnaruzhenija jekologicheskoj opasnosti po real'nym dannym monitoringa [Quality models of environmental hazard detection based on real monitoring data]. Technogenic and ecological safety, 3(1/2018), 3–7. [in Russian].
55. Koloskov, V. (2018). Vyznachennja znachushhyh pokaznykiv kryteriju ekologichnogo rezervu terytorij, pryleglyh do misc' zberigannja vidhodiv [Identification of significant indicators for environmental reserve criterion of territories adjoined to wastes storage places based]. Technogenic and ecological safety, 3(1/2018), 44–51. [in Ukrainian].
56. Sposib vyjavlennja oseredkiv nebezpeky pid chas rekul'tyvacii' zemel' miscja zneshkodzhennja ta znyshhennja bojeprypasiv [Method of detecting hazard foci during land reclamation of the place of neutralization and destruction of ammunition] (UA Patent 149180). (20.10.2021). UA Patent. [in Ukrainian].