WAYS TO IMPROVE THE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE VOLUME OF RUNOFF FROM THE SOIL SURFACE
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture, Kharkiv, Ukraine
National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Keywords: ecological safety, ecological risk, flooding, dangerous consequences, natural resources, economic costs, soil blotting capacity, sewage
The article considers the problem, which is becoming increasingly important in the environmental and economic spheres. It is noted that due to the trend of global warming, the dangers of floods and their harmful environmental and economic consequences are becoming worldwide importance. In this regard, we need to solve the problem in the field of strategies for timely response to floods, mitigating their consequences and preservation of natural floodplain resources. The article analyzes additional factors influencing floods in Western Ukraine through climatic changes, unauthorized scarring forests, anthropogenic changes. To solve the problem of flood forecasting and reducing their consequences, a systematic approach is proposed, which takes into account the environmental risks of floods. A scenario approach is used, which reproduces the tree of possible developments during and after the flood. Arrays of initial input emergencies, probable emergencies and probable consequences are formed. Based on the considered scenarios, strategies and risks management options are constructed. Meaning the scenario approach, the article shows that the normative calculation of the volume of the drain from the soil surface to the reservoir does not take into account some important factors such as soil filtration capacity, surface slope and other parameters. For a more accurate determination of the number of drains it is recommended to improve the estimated formula. To do this, it is proposed to use a double integral over time and mass of water on the surface, which takes into account the mass of water arrival and water outflow, which in turn take into account the properties of the study area, evaporation and the ability of the soil to retain moisture, follow the balance sheet. In this case, conclusions are made to develop a set of measures to reduce the risk of floods and malicious effects.
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